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医学影像学 (Medical Imaging)

     医学影像学也称医学成像,医学影像学Medical Imaging泛指通过X光成像(X-ray),电脑断层扫描(CT),核磁共振成像(MRI), 超声成像(ultrasound),正子扫描(PET),脑电图(EEG),脑磁图(MEG),眼球追踪(eye-tracking),穿颅磁波刺激(TMS)等现代成像技术检查人体无法用非手术手段检查的部位的过程。医学成像又称卤化银成像,因为从前的菲林(胶卷)是用感光材料卤化银化学感光物成像的。


    1895年德国的物理学家伦琴发现了X线,不久即被用于人体的疾病检查,并由此形成了放射诊断学。近30年来,CT、MRI、超声和核素显像设备在不断地改进和完善,检查技术和方法也在不断地创新,影像诊断已从单一依靠形态变化进行诊断发展成为集形态、功能、代谢改变为一体的综合诊断体系。与此同时,一些新的技术如心脏和脑的磁源成像和新的学科分支如分子影像学在不断涌现,影像诊断学的范畴仍在不断发展和扩大之中。

国内医学影像学专业情况
>> 门   类:临床医学与医学技术类
>> 修业年限:五年
>> 授予学位:医学学士
>> 培养目标:
        本专业培养具有基础医学、临床医学和现代医学影像学的基本理论知识及能力,能在医疗卫生单位从事医学影像诊断、介入放射学和医学成像技术等方面的医学高级专门人才。 
>> 培养要求:
        本专业学生主要基础医学、临床医学、医学影像学的基本理论知识,受到常规放射学、CT、磁共振、超声学、DSA、核医学影像学等操作技能的基本训练,具有常见病的影像诊断和介入放射学操作基本能力。
>> 从业领域:
        毕业后主要从事临床医学影像诊断或放射治疗工作或医学教育及医学科研工作,也可到医疗卫生单位从事医学影像诊断、介入放射学、核医学成像技术等方面的工作。
>> 知识技能:
        1.掌握基础医学、临床医学、电子学的基本理论、基本知识;
        2.掌握医学影像学范畴内各项技术(包括常规放射学、CT、核磁共振、DSA、超声学、核医学、影像学等)及计算机的基本理论和操作技能;
        3.具有运用各种影像诊断技术进行疾病诊断的能力;
        4.熟悉有关放射防护的方针,政策和方法,熟悉相关的医学伦理学;
        5.了解医学影像学各专业分支的理论前沿和发展动态;
        6.掌握文献检索、资料查询、计算机应用的基本方法,具有一定的科学研究和实际工作能力。
>> 课程设置:
        主干学科:基础医学、临床医学、医学影像学。
        主要课程:物理学、电子学基础、计算机原理与接口、影像设备结构与维修、医学成像技术、摄影学、人体解剖学、诊断学、内科学、影像诊断学、影像物理、超声诊断、放射诊断、核素诊断、介入放射学、核医学、医学影像解剖学、肿瘤放疗治疗学、B超诊断学。
国外影像学研究方向:
>>Diagnostic Radiography / Medical Imaging(three/four-year undergraduate;two-year graduate)

What does a Diagnostic Radiographer / Medical Imaging Technologist do? 

    A Diagnostic Radiographer/Medical Imaging Technologist is a key member of the health care team.  They are responsible for producing high quality medical images that assist medical specialists and practitioners to describe, diagnose, monitor and treat a patients injury or illness.  Much of the medical equipment used to gain the  images is highly technical and involves state of the art computerisation.

    A Diagnostic Radiographer/Medical Imaging Technologist needs to have the scientific and technological background to understand and use the equipment within a modern Radiology department as well as compassion and strong interpersonal skills.  They need to be able to demonstrate care and understanding and have a genuine interest in a patient's welfare.  The Diagnostic Radiographer/Medical Imaging Technologist will also need to be able to explain to the patient the need for the preparation and post examination care as well as the procedure to be undertaken.

    The Diagnostic Radiographer/Medical Imaging Technologist is able to work in a highly advanced technical profession that requires excellent people skills.  It is an exciting and rewarding profession to embark on and great opportunities await the graduate.
>>Radiation Therapy(three/four-year undergraduate;two-year graduate)

What does a Radiation Therapist do? 

    A Radiation Therapist is a key member of the professional team that manages the cancer patient's treatment.  In conjunction with the Radiation Oncologists they are responsible for the design, accurate calculation and delivery of a prescribed radiation dose over a course of treatment to the patient.  The Radiation Therapist utilises sophisticated imaging equipment and advanced computer systems to create a treatment plan to deliver the optimum dose to the tumour, specific to a particular patient and their diagnosis whilst minimising the dose delivered to healthy tissue.  The Radiation Therapist will deliver the planned treatment with the same accuracy and precision using highly sophisticated computer-controlled equipment.

    As well as having scientific and technological interests Radiation Therapists need to have compassion and strong interpersonal skills. Their role extends to counselling of patients regarding their fears and anxieties often related to their diagnosis and treatment. Radiation Therapists work as members of a highly skilled multi-disciplinary team.

    The Radiation Therapist is able to work in a highly advanced technical profession that requires excellent people skills.  It is an exciting and rewarding profession and great opportunities await the graduate. 

    As an Australian graduate there are good travel opportunities to work overseas.  Australian graduates are sought after in many countries.

    Further information about the role of a Radiation Therapist and what the profession does can be found on the web sites of the Universities which undertake the courses for these professionals.
>>Sonography/Ultrasound(postgraduate)

What does Sonographers do? 

    A diagnostic medical sonographer is a highly-skilled professional who uses specialized equipment to create images of structures inside the human body that are used by physicians to make a medical diagnosis.
推荐学校/专业:
University of Hong Kong (香港大学)
项目名称:Diagnostic Radiology(放射诊断学)
学位:硕士学位
项目简介:The Diagnostic Radiology departement was established on July 1988 and is one of the
newer departments in the Faculty of Medicine. The department provides clinical services and academic activities in high-end imaging modalities; MRI, US, PET-CT & CT and also contributes to clinical service at Queen Mary Hospital.
We provide more than 200 hours of undergraduate Radiology teaching and accept post-graduate students who are interested in pursuing research in the imaging sciences.
Postgraduate:
We accept research postgraduate interested in pursuing Medical Imaging. Students may apply for PhD or Mphil candidate here.
Master of Medical Sciences
We offer specialized field of study DRAD 6201 Physics in Radiation Oncology and Medical Imaging which provides students with professional knowledge about the clinical physics in oncology, radiology & its medical application.  Our field of study provide specialized modules as follows,
- Basic radiological physics and dosimetry
- Brachytherapy physics
- Health physics with focuses on radiological protection in medical sectors
- Molecular imaging and medical cyclotron
- Nuclear medicine sciences
- Physics in medical imaging
- Principles and practice of radiotherapy physics
- Quality assurance (QA) in radiation therapy and medical imaging
(在高端成像模式上提供临床服务及学术交流活动,提供超过200小时的本科放射学教学,并接受在成像科学感兴趣的研究生。)
申请要求:申请者需达到托福成绩80或雅思成绩6.0(托福雅思成绩与六级考试和专业八级英语考试不能相互替代)
The Chinese University of Hong Kang(香港中文大学)
项目名称:Imaging and Interventional Radiology(成像和介入放射学)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:The programmeis research-oriented. It will followa prescribed series of  investigation and students should inform themselves in depth about the fields of knowledge relevant to the topic of their projects. In addition to the 26 units and other requirements as prescribed by the Division, students will be required prescribed submit a research thesis and pass an oral examination for graduation.
Fields of Specialization:
MagneticResonance Imaging
Computed Tomography
InterventionalRadiology
Nuclear Medicine and Molecular imaging
Radiography,MedicalPhysicsandImageProcessing
Ultrasound
(这个项目是研究型的。它会跟进一系列规定深入的调查和学生应该通知自己关于知识的领域相关的主题项目。除了26个单位和规定的其他要求部门,学生将被要求提交一份研究论文和通过毕业的口试.)
申请要求:获得社会认可大学的学士学位,一般大学成绩不低于二等;以优异成绩毕业于社会认可的大学获得学士学位并且平均成绩不低于B;完成大学课程并获得专业或相似的证书(相当于荣誉学位)雅思成绩不低于6.5或IBT70,英语六级成绩不低于430分,托福550
Uppsala University (乌普萨拉大学)
项目名称:Medical Nuclide Techniques(医学核技术)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:The programme provides theoretical and practical skills through a variety of different teaching methods and in close contact with current research projects. The development of radioactive compounds for pre-clinical research, medical imaging or tumor therapy requires competence from several areas.
  The first semester focuses on the unique properties of ionizing radiation and radionuclides and includes theoretical and practical training about radiation types and sources, medical use, development of pharmaceutical compounds and techniques to optimize detection and measurement. An important part of the education involves good manufacturing practice (GMP), i.e. how to assure product quality and patient safety in the production of pharmaceutical compounds.
  During the second semester you will apply your knowledge from the previous semester with emphasis on potential strategies for research and clinical applications of radionuclides for medical imaging and cancer therapy. The semester ends with a Project Work/Degree Project where you have the opportunity to focus on a research area of your specific interest.
  The first year also features a seminar series covering a variety of topics such as project leadership, design methods, biostatistics, presentation techniques and research ethics.
The overall aim of the third semesters is to give advanced knowledge on methods used for radiolabelling of biologically interesting molecules of low and high molecular weight aimed for use in molecular imaging studies (mainly PET and SPECT), preclinical evaluation of radioligands, and an overview of their clinical use. You will be trained in experimental design as well as to independently analyse and interpretresearch results and data generated by current methods and technologies. The programme is concluded with an independent master degree project in the field of medical nuclide techniques, which may be performed within the academy, at a biotech/pharma company or in the public sector.
The programme leads to a Master of Medical Science (120 credits) with Medical Nuclide Techniques as the main field of study. After one year of study it may also be possible to obtain a Master of Medical Science (60 credits).
(这个项目通过不同的教学方法和近距离接触当前的研究项目来提高理论和实际的技能。这个项目通向医学硕士与医学核素技术作为主要的研究领域,经过一年的学习也可获得医学硕士。)
申请要求:获得生命科学的学士学位(物理,放射物理或化学等领域);申请人需有专业的英语能力(如托福与雅思,雅思6.5,分项不低于5.5,托福暂无具体成绩要求)
RMIT University皇家墨尔本理工大学
项目名称:Health and medical science (Medical radiation) 健康与医学科学(医疗放射)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:Develop your advanced research skills and contribute to new developments in medical radiation sciences. Our multidisciplinary approach offers you opportunities to conduct leading-edge medical radiations research. We hold several prestigious National Health and Medical Research Council grants and conduct numerous industry-linked research programs. Your research will be supported by state-of-the-art research facilities including specialised laboratories. Under expert supervision, you will develop your skills and join researchers already active in:
·medical physics
·nuclear medicine
·quantitative and qualitative projects in medical imaging
·radiation therapy
(开发先进的研究技能和对医疗辐射科学新发展做出贡献。我们多学科的研究方法将提供给您机会进行前沿医学辐射研究。)
申请要求:托福90 单科23 大学GPA 78 雅思6.5(单项不低于6.0)
The University of Sydney (悉尼大学)
项目名称:Diagnostic radiology(诊断放射学)
学院名称:健康科学学院
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:The Faculty of Health Sciences is a leader in the provision of a wide range of postgraduate programs, both coursework and research, in the discipline of medical radiation sciences. Our programs are designed and delivered by multidisciplinary world experts in the subject area and prepare students to be leaders within their chosen fields. Our courses are unique and are characterised by embracing the latest research findings, demystifying the most modern relevant technologies and demonstrating state-of-the-art methodologies.
(我们的课程都是独特的和的特点是采用最新的研究成果,阐明最现代的相关技术和展示最先进的方法。这个新设计项目将帮助您开发医疗辐射科学研究领域的技能和知识,包括计算机断层扫描,核磁共振成像,混合成像,乳房成像和影像学图像判读和研究。)
申请要求:雅思6.5(阅读听力写作口语至少6.0);
Curtin University of Technology (科廷科技大学)
项目名称:Medical ultrasound(医学超声检查)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:Medical ultrasound has seen rapid development over the past decade. Ultrasound examinations are becoming a more requested medical test and sonographers who perform these examinations are in high demand. 
As a graduate sonographer, you will perform obstetrics, musculoskeletal, vascular, abdominal and small part imaging, produce ultrasound images and provide an informed opinion on each examination.
(本课程将为你提供所需的背景知识和临床技能,你将承担你的外部学习,运用你的学习你的就业和参与临床超声检查。除了研究生文凭的课程要求,您还将进行一个小的研究项目,提交一份论文评价你的搭档,并准备在其审阅的杂志上发表论文。)
Charles Sturt University (澳大利亚查尔斯特大学)
项目名称:Medical radiation sciences(医学放射科学)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:课程的目的是让学生希望进行进一步研究辐射在医学科学的主题,而不是专注于一个特定的专业领域。该辐射科学提供五个专业领域:计算机断层扫描,磁共振成像,射线照相影像判读、核医学和分子成像。
申请要求:雅思6.0(单科不低于5.5)
University Surrey(萨里大学)
项目名称:Medical imaging(医学影像学)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:The term ‘medical imaging’ may invoke images of brain slices acquired from modern scanners. However, the breadth of this subject is far wider. Applications include the creation of 3D graphical models for facial reconstruction from scan data, the visualisation of complex vascular (blood vessel) structures to assist keyhole surgical procedures, techniques for creating patient-specific 3D modelling of human organ shapes and image-based methods designed to detect various pathologies and disease states in humans.
(医学影像在医疗行业是一个快速发展学科,涉及临床医生、物理学家计算机科学家。这是由于三维医学影像在过去几十年里系统的快速发展。我们的课程将会在医学影像领域让你更好的理解。)
申请要求:雅思6.5(单项6.0)
University of Dundee(邓迪大学)
项目名称:Medical imaging(医学影像学)
学位:硕士学位
项目介绍:The MSc Medical Imaging programme is intended to provide a Masters-level postgraduate education in the knowledge, skills and understanding of engineering design of advanced medical and biotechnology products and systems. You will also acquire a working knowledge of the clinical environment to influence your design philosophy.
(该课程提供医学影像方面的知识和技能,特别是在现代生物医学、放射学和外科成像仪器,生物材料,生物力学与组织工程,提高你的分析和批判能力,在多学科的研究与开发能力。提供广泛的经验分析和成像技术相关的生物学、生物分子和临床科学,提供核心训练声超声技术。)
申请要求:雅思6.0
Monash University(莫纳什大学)
项目名称:Medical Radiations
学位:硕士
项目介绍:It's the only distance-learning course of its type in Australia and includes up to 62 weeks of clinical placements - more than any other similar Australian degree.
In 2014 the radiation therapy places includes clinical placements in Victoria, along with Interstate placements agreements that are well established in Western Australia, Tasmania and Queensland.
The course is fully supported by our extensive online resources and teaching staff. It's provided through our research-focused Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, giving you exposure to the most up-to-date practices and knowledge.
Professional recognitions:
Australian
The Radiation Therapy stream of study is approved by the Australian Institute of Radiography, and upon successful completion of the course, graduates meet the requirements for the 'Statement of Accreditation' issued by the AIR and professional registration in Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania and Queensland.
The medical ultrasound stream of study is approved by the Australasian Sonographers Accreditation Registry.
All students will be registered as student practitioner with the Medical Radiations Practice Board through the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency.(该课程是通过我们的医学影像和放射科学中心的部门之一,给你接触最新的实践和知识。)
申请要求:雅思7.0(单项不低于7.0)
Rush University(拉什大学)
项目名称:Diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology.
Rush University offers a Master of Science program in radiological sciences designed for students who have been accepted into the residency programs at the university in the fields of diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology. These students may complete the curriculum in this program simultaneously while completing residency requirements.
University of Massachusetts at Lowell(伦威尔麻萨诸塞大学)
项目名称: radiologic sciences and protection.
The University of Massachusetts at Lowell has a Master of Science program in radiologic sciences and protection. Students can also choose to follow the professional science master’s option that includes the addition of professional courses that focus on communication and management while maintaining a strong science core. Required courses include nuclear instrumentation, radiation safety and control, radiation biology and external radiation dosimetry and shielding.
Jefferson College of Health Professions(杰斐逊卫生职业学院)
项目名称:radiologic and imaging sciences
Jefferson College of Health Professions offers a radiologic and imaging sciences program that leads to a Master of Science; this is the only program of its kind on the East Coast. Three track options are available including management, education or the PET/CT track. Students can complete this executive-style program on a full-time schedule in as little as 12 months or they can opt to complete the program on a half-time schedule in 24 months. Required courses include program management, current topics in radiologic sciences and radiologic and imaging sciences current technology.
Midwestern State University(中西州立大学)
项目名称:radiological sciences
Midwestern State University has a Master of Science program in radiological sciences that is the first discipline-specific degree program of its kind in the country. The program offers three major options: radiologic administration, radiologist assistant and radiologic education. The program, delivered in a hybrid format, requires minimal on-campus attendance. Courses include contemporary trends in radiologic science, leadership


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